# Harnessing the Future Value Formula for Strategic Investment Decisions ## Key Takeaways

• Future Value provides investors with an estimate of how much a current investment could be worth in the future, aiding in the decision-making process.
• The Future Value Formula is a vital mathematical tool for investors, used to predict the potential worth of an investment in the future.
• The future value formula, while helpful, has its limitations and should be used in conjunction with other financial metrics and market knowledge.
• Future value and present value are complementary financial concepts that provide insights into an investment’s worth over time.

### What is the Future Value Formula?

In the landscape of investments, understanding the language and mechanics of financial calculations is of great significance. A term that holds high relevance in this domain is the “Future Value”. This concept, and the associated formula, serves as a compass guiding investment decisions, by providing insights into the potential growth of investments over time.

### What is Future Value?

At its core, the concept of Future Value refers to the predicted worth of an asset or cash flow at a specific future date, calculated on the basis of a specific rate of return or interest. This prediction aids in comparing the potential growth of different investments over time.

Whether an investor is considering investing in a real estate property, a piece of art, or a publicly traded stock, the Future Value Formula is instrumental in determining the possible profitability of the investment in the long run.

### The Importance of Future Value to Investors

Understanding the future value of an investment plays a pivotal role in investment decisions. It equips investors with a concrete quantitative metric to evaluate and compare potential investment opportunities based on their expected returns.

Knowing the potential future value of an investment, investors can manage their expectations better and plan their investment strategies more effectively.

Understanding future value not only helps evaluate individual investments but also assists in comparing different investment opportunities. For instance, consider two real estate properties that are expected to yield different rates of return. The future value formula can provide a clear comparison of the potential returns from both properties, enabling a more informed decision. Moreover, understanding future value also helps in retirement planning. By estimating the future value of one’s retirement fund, one can plan better for a financially secure future.

### The Future Value Formula and Its Calculation

The Future Value Formula is a mathematical equation used to calculate the potential worth of an investment in the future. The formula takes into account the principal amount (or initial investment), the rate of return (or interest rate), and the time period for which the money is invested.

The Future Value Formula is expressed as:

FV = PV * (1 + r/n) ^ (nt)

Here:

• FV represents Future Value
• PV stands for the Present Value or the initial investment amount. This is the initial amount of money invested. It can be a lump sum amount or can represent periodic payments in the case of annuities.
• r is the annual interest rate (expressed as a decimal). This is the expected rate of return on the investment per period, usually expressed annually. It’s important to convert this rate to a decimal for calculations.
• n denotes the number of compounding periods per year. This refers to the number of times interest is compounded per period. For example, if interest is compounded annually, n would be 1; if semi-annually, n would be 2, and so forth.
• t represents the time in years. This is the total duration of the investment, generally expressed in years.

In the formula, each of these parameters needs to be accurately defined to calculate the future value correctly. It’s crucial to align the interest rate and the compounding periods with the time duration for accurate calculations. Misalignment might lead to incorrect estimates.

### Real-World Example of Future Value Calculation

Consider a real estate property that an investor is planning to buy for \$500,000. The investor expects a 5% annual return on this property and intends to hold it for 10 years. The Future Value of this investment after the ten-year period can be calculated using the Future Value Formula:

Using the formula: FV = PV * (1 + r/n) ^ (nt)

Where:

• PV (Present Value) is \$500,000
• r (annual interest rate) is 5% or 0.05 (in decimal form)
• n (number of compounding periods per year) is 1 (assuming annual compounding)
• t (time in years) is 10

The calculation would be: FV = \$500,000 * (1 + 0.05/1) ^ (1*10) FV = \$500,000 * (1.05) ^ 10 FV = \$500,000 * 1.6289 FV = \$814,500

Therefore, the real estate property’s value is predicted to be approximately \$814,500 after ten years, considering a 5% annual return.

Let’s consider another example involving compound interest with more frequent compounding periods.

Suppose an investor puts \$5,000 into a savings account with a 4% annual interest rate compounded monthly. The investor plans to keep the money in the account for 5 years. The future value of this investment can be calculated as follows:

FV = PV * (1 + r/n) ^ (nt) FV = \$5,000 * (1 + 0.04/12) ^ (12*5) FV = \$5,000 * (1.0033) ^ 60 FV = \$5,000 * 1.2202 FV = \$6,101

The future value of this investment, after five years, will be approximately \$6,101, considering a 4% annual interest rate compounded monthly.

### Benefits and Limitations of Future Value

While the future value formula provides a numerical insight into an investment’s potential worth, it’s also essential to understand its benefits and limitations.

One of the main advantages of using the future value formula is that it allows investors to make informed decisions about whether or not to pursue an investment. By understanding how much an investment could potentially be worth in the future, investors can assess its viability and profitability.

An important benefit of the future value formula is that it assumes the power of compounding, which is a vital component of any long-term investment strategy. Compounding interest or returns means earning interest on the interest already earned, which leads to exponential growth of the investment over time.

The future value formula also enables investors to compare various investment opportunities. By calculating the future value of different investment options, investors can determine which opportunities are likely to yield higher returns over a specific period.

However, the future value formula does come with certain limitations. It assumes a constant rate of return or interest over the investment period, which might not be realistic. In reality, interest rates and returns can fluctuate over time due to various factors such as market conditions and changes in economic policies.

Moreover, the future value formula doesn’t take into account additional investments or withdrawals made during the investment period. These can also affect the final value of the investment.

One notable limitation is the difficulty in predicting future rates of return. While we can use historical data as a guide, future returns are often influenced by unpredictable factors such as market volatility, inflation, changes in economic policies, or even global events.

### Future Value vs. Present Value

While future value calculates the potential worth of an investment in the future, present value, on the other hand, measures the current worth of a future sum of money or stream of cash flows given a specified rate of return.

The future value concept focuses on the growth of an investment, while present value discounts future cash flows to their value today. Therefore, the two concepts are essentially two sides of the same coin.

Present value helps investors understand what a future sum of money is worth in today’s terms. This is especially useful when evaluating investments that offer future cash flows, such as dividends from stocks or rental income from real estate. By calculating the present value, investors can determine if the potential future returns justify the investment cost today.

Understanding the correlation and differences between these two concepts allows investors to make comprehensive assessments of their investments and expected returns.

Understanding both concepts is vital for investors as they provide a more complete picture of an investment’s worth over time.

### Applicability of Future Value Beyond Publicly Traded Stock

While often associated with publicly traded stock or fixed income products, the future value concept also extends to alternative investment avenues such as art, real estate, and venture capital.

By understanding the future value, investors can gain insights into the potential profitability of a wide variety of investments, helping them make more informed and diversified investment decisions.

When applied to alternative investments such as art, the future value formula can guide investors in their purchasing decisions. For example, an art collector might want to know the potential future value of a piece of artwork before making a purchase. Using estimated annual appreciation rates, the future value formula can provide a potential future selling price, thus informing the collector whether the purchase is a sound investment.

### Invest in Alternative Assets

Get consistent returns in times of market volatility.

Similarly, in venture capital, the future value concept helps assess the potential profitability of start-ups and early-stage companies.

Understanding the broader applications of future value gives investors a diversified perspective and more comprehensive investment strategy.

### The Impact of Compounding Frequency on Future Value

The frequency of compounding has a significant impact on the future value of an investment. The more frequently interest is compounded, the greater the future value.

For instance, if interest is compounded annually, interest is added to the principal only once a year. But if it’s compounded semi-annually, interest is added twice a year. This means the interest for the second half of the year is calculated on the principal plus the interest earned during the first half of the year.

This effect becomes more pronounced over longer periods and higher interest rates. Therefore, when making investment decisions, it’s important to consider not just the rate of return but also the frequency of compounding.

### Common Mistakes to Avoid When Using the Future Value Formula

Misunderstanding and misusing the Future Value Formula can lead to significant inaccuracies in estimating an investment’s potential worth. Here are a few common mistakes to avoid:

Misalignment of Interest Rates and Time Periods

As mentioned earlier, it’s crucial to align the interest rate and compounding periods with the time duration of the investment. For instance, if interest is compounded semi-annually, the annual interest rate must be divided by two, and the number of years should be multiplied by the same factor. Failure to do so can lead to over or underestimation of the investment’s future value.

Ignoring the Effect of Inflation

The Future Value Formula does not account for inflation, which can erode the purchasing power of your returns over time. If you are considering a long-term investment, it’s prudent to factor in inflation. A simple way to do this is by using the real rate of return (nominal rate of return – inflation rate) in the Future Value Formula.

Overestimating the Rate of Return

While it’s essential to be optimistic, overestimating the rate of return can lead to unrealistic expectations of future wealth. It’s recommended to use conservative estimates or a range of possible returns when using the Future Value Formula, especially for long-term investments.

Not Considering the Risk

The Future Value Formula does not consider the risk associated with an investment. Investments with higher expected returns often come with higher risk. It’s essential to consider your risk tolerance and the risk-return trade-off when using the Future Value Formula.

By avoiding these common mistakes, investors can make better use of the Future Value Formula in their investment decision-making process.

### Alternative Investments and Portfolio Diversification

Traditional portfolio asset allocation envisages a 60% public stock and 40% fixed income allocation. However, a more balanced 60/20/20 or 50/30/20 split, incorporating alternative assets, may make a portfolio less sensitive to public market short-term swings.

Real estate, private equity, venture capital, digital assets, precious metals and collectibles are among the asset classes deemed “alternative investments.” Broadly speaking, such investments tend to be less connected to public equity, and thus offer potential for diversification. Of course, like traditional investments, it is important to remember that alternatives also entail a degree of risk.

In some cases, this risk can be greater than that of traditional investments.

This is why these asset classes were traditionally accessible only to an exclusive base of wealthy individuals and institutional investors buying in at very high minimums — often between \$500,000 and \$1 million.  These people were considered to be more capable of weathering losses of that magnitude, should the investments underperform. However, that meant the potentially exceptional gains these investments presented were also limited to these groups.

To democratize these opportunities, Yieldstreet has opened a number of carefully curated alternative investment strategies to all investors. While the risk is still there, the company offers help in capitalizing on areas such as real estate, legal finance, art finance and structured notes — as well as a wide range of other unique alternative investments.